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Adrafinil Australia Buy


Because α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists were found to block effects of adrafinil and modafinil in animals, "most investigators assume[d] that adrafinil and modafinil both serve as α1-adrenergic receptor agonists."[2] However, adrafinil and modafinil have not been found to bind to the α1-adrenergic receptor and they lack peripheral sympathomimetic side effects associated with activation of this receptor;[8] hence, the evidence in support of this hypothesis is weak, and other mechanisms are probable.[2] Modafinil was subsequently screened at a variety of targets in 2009 and was found to act as a weak, atypical blocker of the dopamine transporter (and hence as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor), and this action may explain some or all of its pharmacological effects.[9][10][11] Relative to adrafinil, modafinil possesses greater specificity in its action, lacking or having a reduced incidence of many of the common side effects of the former (including stomach pain, skin irritation, anxiety, and elevated liver enzymes with prolonged use).[12][13]




adrafinil australia buy



In 1976, two years after the discovery of adrafinil, modafinil, its active metabolite, was discovered.[14] Modafinil appeared to be more potent than adrafinil in animal studies, and was selected for further clinical development, with both adrafinil and modafinil eventually reaching the market.[14] Modafinil was first approved in France in 1994, and then in the United States in 1998.[15] Lafon was acquired by Cephalon in 2001.[16] As of September 2011, Cephalon has discontinued Olmifon, its adrafinil product, while modafinil continues to be marketed.[3]


In 2005 a Medical Classification Committee in New Zealand recommended to MEDSAFE NZ that adrafinil be classified as a prescription medicine due to risks of it being used as a party drug. At that time adrafinil was not scheduled in New Zealand.[18]


In a clinical trial with the tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine and placebo as comparators, adrafinil showed efficacy in the treatment of depression.[2] In contrast to clomipramine however, adrafinil was well-tolerated, and showed greater improvement in psychomotor retardation in comparison.[2] The authors concluded that further investigation of the potential antidepressant effects of adrafinil were warranted.[2] 041b061a72


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